Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and their Toxic Effect on Human Health: A Review Study
Author Name : Mahipal Singh Sankhla, MayuriKumari, ManishaNandan, Rajeev Kumar, Prashant Agrawal
ABSTRACT Heavy Metals Environment Pollution especially with toxic metals like, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, etc. from a variety of source like soil, water, food lead to cumulative and serious health hazards in human beings, plant and animals. The application of sewage sludge or bio solids on soils has been widespread in agricultural areas. However, depending on their characteristics, they may cause increase in heavy metal concentration of treated soils. It depends on soil properties, heavy metal levels and characteristics, plant species and climatic conditions. Arsenic is a known carcinogen and can cause cancer of the skin, lungs, liver and bladder. Cadmium chronic exposure to lower levels leads to a buildup in the kidneys and possible kidney disease, lung damage, and fragile bones. Exposure to high lead levels can severely damage the brain and kidneys and ultimately cause death. The nervous system is very sensitive to all forms of mercury. Heavy metal contamination refers to the excessive deposition of toxic heavy metals in the soil caused by human activities. Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it.The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning.